The history of Seoul dates back to 18 BC. That year, the new kingdom of Baekje built its capital in the Seoul area as the Wiryeseong (慰礼城). Back when the Three Kingdoms fought the hegemony of Korea , Seoul was often the site where settled the conflict. It was considered that the kingdom that controlled the area around was able to control the entire peninsula. That is why the xi th century leader of the dynasty Koryo built a palace in Seoul, which was considered the capital of South . The city is changing its name from Hanyang (汉阳) in Hansong (汉城) when it became the capital of the Choson dynasty in 1394 (she was known by that name in Chinese – Hancheng – until October 2005, when the name Shou’er首尔was adopted at the request of the mayor of Seoul- 1 ). It was renamed Kyongsong (京城- Keijo in Japanese ) during the Japanese occupation and finally found the name of Seoul to the liberation in 1945. This name had been used since the kingdom Silla ( 57 BC. – 935 ); it comes from the ancient words Sobol or ‘Sorabol’. Both designated Gyeongju, then capital of Silla, and meant “capital”. They were later transliterated into several types reflecting the gradual changes over time and arrived in Seoul. The Hanja Kyong (京) also means “capital” and is used to represent Seoul in the names of railway lines and highways – for example the railway line Kyŏngbu (Seoul-Busan) and Highway Kyŏngin (Seoul-Inch’ŏn) . Seoul / Seoul (in Hangeul : 서울) was, for over 500 years, the capital of the kingdom of Choson and is, since the Korean War , the capital of South Korea . It is also the largest city in the Korean peninsula . The city name derives from the ancient Korean Seorabeol or Seobeol , meaning “capital city”. The city was known in the past in several successive names: Wiryeseong (위례성;慰礼城; Paekche ), Hanyang (한양;汉阳) and Hanseong (한성;汉城; period Koryo and Choson period ). It is situated on the river Han , northwest of the country. The demilitarized zone (DMZ) is, in turn, about 45 kilometers from downtown. With a population of about 10 million inhabitants (Séoulites) and an urban area of more than 22.8 million inhabitants including Incheon , Seoul is the fourth largest metropolis the most populous in the world after Tokyo , New York and Mexico . More than three million vehicles are counted, resulting in traffic jams daily beyond midnight .
The N Seoul Tower
It is thought that early humans lived along the banks of the river below Han during the Paleolithic because of prehistoric ruins have been unearthed in Amsa-dong (village), Gangdong-gu (district). With the introduction of bronze about 700 BC, men have gradually dispersed River Basin in inland areas.
The gate Namdaemun
Towards the end of the xix th century, after hundreds of years of isolation, Seoul opened its doors to foreigners and began to modernize. She became the first city in East Asia to have electricity, tramway, running water, telephone, and telegraph. Many of these innovations were due to trade with the United States . For example, the “Seoul Electric Company”, “Seoul Electric Trolley Company”, and “Seoul Fresh Spring Water Company” were companies with U.S. capital. In 1904 , a U.S. citizen named Angus Hamilton visited the city and said: ” The streets of Seoul are magnificent, spacious, clean, beautifully made and well drained. The narrow lanes, dirty were widened, gutters have been covered, roadways are enlarged. Seoul is the extent of becoming the largest, most interesting and cleanest cities in the east ” .
Royal palace of Gyeongbokgung
In 1905 , the Japanese established a protectorate in Korea, following the Treaty of Portsmouth , which closed the Russo-Japanese War , making Seoul a colonial capital. Under the Japanese occupation ( 1910 – 1945 ), the town was named Kyongsong (경성;京城, Japanese Keijo ). The Japanese General Government Building (demolished in 1995 ) served as the seat of colonial government of Japan. After the Second World War and the liberation of Korea, the city took its current name. When the Republic of Korea ( South Korea ) was proclaimed in 1948 , the new state adopted the city as the capital.
Gyeongbokgung Palace and the Presidential ” Blue House ”
In 1950 , the Korean War broke out and Seoul has changed four times between occupants of the North Koreans backed by China and South Koreans backed by the UN during the battles of Seoul , the city was severely damaged during this war. A damage assessment showed that at least 191,000 buildings, 55,000 houses and 1,000 factories were in ruins. In addition, a crowd of refugees from North came to populate the tria laser hair removal reviews city, which was already a housing shortage. With the influx of refugees, the population was estimated at 2.5 million people by the end of the war.
Buildings in downtown Seoul
With the help of the United States , Seoul became the center of an immense reconstruction and modernization. The rapid economic growth achieved during the industrialization of the 1960s and 1970s has considerably raised the standard of living of the inhabitants. Office towers and apartments began to grow throughout the city during the construction boom of the 1980s. Pollution and congestion have become major problems while urbanization in the country is accelerating and more and more people began moving to Seoul and its surrounding areas. Despite an established green belt around the city to avoid urban sprawl , the Seoul metropolitan area will soon become one of the world’s largest in terms of population and one of the most crowded.
During the year 1990 , the city began to attract many workers from other countries. Previously, almost all were residents of Seoul Korean, with the exception of a small Chinese minority. Today, it is estimated that 200,000 foreigners living in Seoul. These include workers from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Uzbekistan and Vietnam. As a business center, commercial and business major, Seoul also has a lot of managers and analysts from North America, Europe and Japan. Seoul ranks 7 th in the world in terms of number of multinational companies ranked in Fortune Global 500 .
The river Han .
Seoul seen by SPOT
The historic center was built on a site backing onto the mountain and open to the river Han , thus meeting the criteria géomanciques favorable. Hill Namsan (South Mountain), just south of the historic center, is now a convenient reference point for locating the center of almost everywhere, thanks to its TV tower. apartment marketing
The Han through the city forming a << W >>, entering from the east to get out west. The city is also crossed by five rivers: the Seongnae ( Hangeul : 성내천 Hanja :城内川), the Banpo ( Hangeul : 반포천 Hanja :盘浦川), the Tan ( Hangeul : 탄천 Hanja :炭川) which rises not far from Yongin , the Jungrang ( Hangeul : 중랑천 Hanja :中浪川) which originates in Mount Bulgok (불곡산) near the city of Yangju one of whose tributaries is the famous Cheonggyecheon and the Anyang ( Hangul : 안냥천 Hanja :安养川) which rises not far from Uiwang .
More than twenty bridges can cross the river:
Gwangjin Bridge ( Hangeul : 광진교 Hanja :广津桥) located upstream of the city
Bridge Cheonho ( Hangeul : 천호대교 Hanja :千户大桥): including a floor for the rail line 5 of no no hair removal the metro séoulite and a floor for motor traffic
Olympic bridge ( Hangeul : 올림픽 대교)
Jamsil Rail Bridge ( Hangeul : 잠실 철교 Hanja :蚕室铁桥): Railway bridge crossed by the line 2 metro
Jamsil Bridge ( Hangeul : 잠실 대교 Hanja :蚕室大桥)
Cheongdam Bridge ( Hangeul : 청담 대교 Hanja :淸潭大桥): including a floor for the rail line 7 of the Metro séoulite and a floor for motor traffic
Yeongdong Bridge ( Hangeul : 영동 대교 Hanja :永东大桥)
Bridge Seongsu ( Hangeul : 성수 대교 Hanja :圣水大桥)
Dongho Bridge ( Hangeul : 동호 대교 Hanja :东湖大桥): including a floor for the rail line 3 of the metro séoulite and a floor for motor traffic
Hannam Bridge ( Hangeul : 한남대교 Hanja :汉南大桥)
Banpo Bridge ( Hangeul : 반포 대교 Hanja :盘浦大桥) with Bridge Jamsu ( Hangeul : 잠수교 Hanja :潜水桥)
1 st bridge Seorae ( Hangeul : 1 서래 교 Hanja :西来桥1)
2 e bridge Seorae ( Hangeul : 2 서래 교 Hanja :西来桥2)
3 e bridge Seorae ( Hangeul : 3 서래 교 Hanja :西来桥3)
Dongjak Bridge ( Hangeul : 동작 대교 Hanja :铜雀大桥): including a floor for the rail line 4 of the metro séoulite and a floor for motor traffic
Han Bridge ( Hangeul : 한강 대교 Hanja :汉江大桥)
Han Railway Bridge ( Hangeul : 한강 철교 Hanja :汉江铁桥)
Bridge Wonhyo ( Hangeul : 원효 대교 Hanja :元晓大桥) which is an extension of Bridge Yeoui ( Hangeul : 여의교 Hanja :汝矣桥)
Mapo Bridge ( Hangeul : 마포 대교 Hanja :麻浦大桥) which is an extension of Bridge Seoul ( Hangeul : 서울교)
Sogang Bridge ( Hangeul : 서강대교 Hanja :西江大桥) which is an extension of Bridge Yeoui-2 ( Hangeul : 2 여의 교 Hanja :汝矣桥2)
Railway bridge Dangsan ( Hangeul : 당산 철교 Hanja :堂山铁桥): Railway bridge borrowed by the line 2 of metro séoulite .
Bridge Yanghwa ( Hangeul : 양화 대교 Hanja :杨花大桥)
Bridge Seonyu ( Hangeul : 선유교 Hanja :仙游桥)
Bridge Seongsan ( Hangeul : 성산 대교 Hanja :城山大桥)
Bridge Gayang ( Hangeul : 가양대교 Hanja :加阳大桥) downstream of the city.
Seoul has a humid climate of eastern facades of the continents , similar to New York , with summers characterized by their high heat and humidity, and winters can be harsh. The average annual temperature is 12, 2 ° C. The temperature difference between the seasons is very important, so the maximum temperature in summer totaled an average of 38, 4 ° C, while the lowest temperature in winter is -23.1 ° C.
Seoul weather record
The South Korea has the 12 th highest GDP in the world and Seoul is world ranked 7 th in the number of multinational owned ranking Fortune Global 500 :
Samsung Electronics (삼성 전자): 46 th in the Fortune Global 500
LG (Lucky-GoldStar 엘지): 72 th
(Recently divided into LG and GS)
Hyundai Motor (현대 / 현대 자동차): 80 th houses for rent in raleigh nc
SK (에스케이): 111 e
Samsung Life Insurance (삼성 / 삼성 생명 보험): 224 e
Korea Electric Power (한국 전력 공사): 240 e
Kookmin Bank (국민 은행): 364 e
Hanjin / Korean Air (한진 그룹): 381 e
SK Networks (에스케이 텔레콤): 467 e
Transport and Communications
KTX from Seoul Station
Seoul has nine subway lines, nearly 200 bus routes and six major highways that link the boroughs with each other and the surrounding area. The Seoul subway (서울 지하철) was inaugurated in 1974 and is currently one of the largest in the world. The cost of one being quite low (and approximately proportional to the distance traveled), the majority of the population uses public transport. With more than 8 million passengers per day, Seoul has one of the busiest metros in the world. This is the way to travel faster in the capital and is convenient for foreigners, because of lattice planes and in stations, the station name is written, not only in Korea but also in transcription “Romanized “. Each station is also designated by a 3-digit number, indicating the first line, the last two digits indicating the position of the station relative to the starting point of the line. For example, the station “Seoul Station” has the number 133 because it is the 33 th station of Line 1, but also the number 426 as it is … the 26 th Line station 4 (the first station, Danggogae , bearing the number 409). The network includes nine different lines that remain in operation from 5am to midnight. It has over 201 stations and measuring 280 km long.
There are two types of buses: red buses and bus standards (blue, green and yellow).
The red buses ( Hangul : 광역 버스): these are express buses linking Seoul to suburban areas.
Standard bus: The bus network quadrille and the city is divided in three types of routes.
the blue buses ( Hangul : 간선 버스) serve the main arteries (long distances) dental assisting in Seoul on at least two districts.
green buses ( Hangul : 지선 버스) operate in the same district of Seoul, carrying passengers to transfer stops.
Yellow buses ( Hangul : 순환 버스) flow loop in the main districts of Seoul.
There are different models of buses in Metro séoulite:
Daewoo Bus BH115E, BH116 and 120H (diesel / CNG) – for buses red and blue.
Daewoo Bus BS090 (Diesel / CNG) – For bus yellow and green.
Daewoo Bus BS106 (Diesel / CNG) – For blue and green bus.
Daewoo Bus BS106L (Diesel) – For blue and green bus.
Daewoo Bus BS110CN/120CN Non-step low rider (CNG) – For blue and green bus.
Iveco CityClass (18m) – For the blue buses.
Hyundai Aero City 540L/SL (Diesel) – For blue and green bus.
Hyundai Super Aero City (Diesel) – with 21, 38 or 45 seats. For bus blue, red and green.
Hyundai New Super Aero City (diesel / CNG) – For blue and green bus.
Hyundai New Super Aero City Non-Step Low Rider (CNG) – For blue and green bus.
Hyundai Chorus, e-Aerotown, Global 900 (Diesel) – For the green bus.
Kia / Asia Motors Cosmos, New Cosmos (Diesel) – For the green bus.
Incheon International Airport
The city is served by two airports: Incheon one (인천 국제 공항) (for international flights), located on an island opposite the harbor of this city , and Gimpo (김포 국내 공항) (for domestic flights ).
Lines KNR ( Korean National Railroad ) (한국 철도 공사) cover almost the entire territory from Seoul. There are three types of trains the KTX , the first class Saemaeul (새마을) and the second class Mugunghwa (무궁화).
Seoul how to get your ex back Station (서울역): this is the main starting point for most railroads.
Five bus stations serve Seoul: Seoul Express Bus pop up displays Terminal (서울 버스 터미널), Dong Seoul Bus Terminal (동서울 버스 터미널) Sangbong Bus Terminal (상봉 버스 터미널) and Nambu Bus Terminal (남부 버스 터미널). The roads traveled by express bus are more than 60% of the highways South Korea on Lonely Planet and they do not perform stops mid-term.
The restoration of the palace of Gyeongbokgung and Gwanghwamun gate is intended to redefine the historic heart of Seoul. Often considered a city without heritage, Seoul is indeed in search of his identity. Following the demolition of the Palace of the Governorate Japanese, Victorian building built during the occupation and destroyed in the year 1990 , a copy of the concrete door Gwangamun served as input for the royal download free ringtones now palace. It was disproportionate and misplaced. A major restoration project, currently underway, aims to restore its shape, its location and construction principle also by modifying the palace and the avenue in front of it. The two pavilions flanking the door will again be part of the enclosure and not the middle of traffic. The flag of the west, destroyed in the early xx th century to make way for tram , will be rebuilt exactly as its twin is. Growth of Seoul has transformed the urban landscape in a dense network of high-rise residential and office.
To mark the departure of U.S. troops in the district of Yongsan , the neighborhood will be completely remodeled according to a draft planning Pharaohs. A new building complex named Dream Hub will be built at around 2016 , with a skyscraper landmark, the Dream Tower rising to 665 meters high.
DMC (Digital Media City)
DMC is located in the district of Sangam-dong. A tower of 640 meters is under construction and will be completed in 2014. There will also have apartments for foreigners and other modern services. The 1 st July 2009, Station “Susaek” of line 6 has turned into “Digital Media City” (not to be confused with the station “Susaek” the line Gyengeui ).
The large urban planning projects in wikipedia seoul Seoul multiply with the desire to make a city more beautiful and pleasant, down from unplanned urbanization performed during the phase of intensive economic development of the country. The Korean capital aspires to become in effect a megalopolis leading international and reinforce its attractiveness, especially with his title of World Design Capital in 2010 .
The former site of the Seoul National University (founded in 1946 and get transferred in 1975), became the Chestnut Park . The ancient fortifications, remains essentially the doors of Namdaemun (the Great South Gate, National Treasure No. 1 in Korea) and Dongdaemun, the great door of the East. Namdaemun, wooden building on two levels dating from 1398, was completely burned February 10, 2008, leaving him standing on a stone base on which was built the door.
There are over 100 museums in Seoul, including three national museums: the Museum of Korea , the folkloric museum and the Palace Museum in Gyeongbokgung.
Among the center’s palace: Gyeongbokgung (Kyongbokkung) and Deoksugung adjoining the Town Hall Square.
Seoul has many universities. The top three are, however, the Seoul National University , the Yonsei University and Korea University .
Seoul also has other universities very old, as the Sungkyunkwan University , founded in 1398 2 .
The Sejong University is currently constructing a universal language, the Unish.
Sports brazilian jiu jitsu gainesville
Seoul hosted the Summer Olympics in 1988 and the football World Cup , with Japan in 2002.
In football, FC Seoul is the city in the K-League . He plays Cup stadium in the world .A megalopolis (the Greek megas, megalos , “large” and polis , “city”) is an urbanized area consists of several polynuclear cities whose suburbs and peri-urban areas extend so they end up meeting, and that on long distances.
Do not confuse a megalopolis and a megacity , agglomeration of more than 10 million inhabitants (threshold set by the UN , previously set at 8 million inhabitants). Thus, Moscow is a megapolis, but not part of any megalopolis known as no urban network of importance has grown close even if it has more than 14 million inhabitants.
Megalopolis or Megalopoli (“the big city,” as Pausanias wrote Périégète) is a city in Greece, the Peloponnese, in the valley of the Alpheus. It was founded between -371 and -365 before the modern era by Epaminondas to monitor Sparta. It was the seat of the Arcadian League
The Arcadia was a country of villages, in the Hellenic bucolic poetry, was represented as the land of happiness, the ideal country. Ancient poetry, described Arcadia as a place populated by primitive and idyllic shepherds, living in harmony with nature. For a long time Arcadia had no central government: later we realized the need for a center, and that’s why Megalopolis was built, the capital of all Arcadia (370 BC ).
As such, it represents the idea of an ultra-urban motivated by a political function, and in opposition to this idea of a bucolic town.
Origin of the concept
Contemporaneously, the concept was proposed by French geographer Jean Gottmann in his book Megalopolis, The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States (1961, The MIT Press), which dealt with urban areas of northeastern United States .
This defines the “Megalopolis” by urban areas lying between the city of Boston and the Greater Baltimore – Washington , including the cities of Hartford , of New York , and Philadelphia , and a multitude of cities with more 100 000 inhabitants, on the east coast of the United States . Sometimes found expression BosWash (composed by the first syllable of the name of two cities at the ends). This urban complex is spread over more than 800 km from north to south, with an estimated population of some 65 or 70 million.
Gottmann explains this concentration of population and power (political, economic, legal, cultural) in this space by the succession of windows of opportunity: the colonization of the north wall and the importance of maritime trade with Europe, the North’s victory the South during the Civil War (eliminating competition from southern ports) and the presence of an urban elite one .
The author even tends to make a new Rome “(the Megalopolis) is a bit of this at the time that was Imperial Rome of the ancient world. The Atlantic seems to be the new Mare Nostrum of the Megalopolis extraordinary dimensions ” 2 . This comparison anticipates the analysis that leads to the definition of the three centers of the pulse Triad of Ken’ichi Omae , fifteen years later.
Examples of megacities
Main free green smoke coupon articles: BosWash , ChiPitts and SanSan .
In some French textbooks, the metropolitan border of the Great Lakes in North America, would correspond to a megalopolis of 65 million inhabitants. It would bring together U.S. cities ( Chicago , Detroit ) and Canada ( Montreal , Toronto , Quebec , Ottawa ), and a dozen other smaller cities.
Other groups may be perceived as megacities in training:
In Brazil , the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo .
In the U.S., the urban area located between San Francisco and San Diego , called SanSan .
In the U.S., the urban area located on the East Coast between Boston and Washington , called the BosWash .
Main article: Taiheiyo Belt .
Since the 1980s, a second megalopolis was formed in Japan . This Japanese megalopolis stretches over 1,000 km from Tokyo , to the east, in Fukuoka , west, and brings together 105 million people, approximately 80% of Japan’s population of 6% of the territory. This urban complex is considered the demographic and political heart of Japan . It consists of three sets: the downtown core, around the administrative and economic capital of the country, Tokyo (34 million inh.) and the region of Kanto , then the secondary center (22 million inh), connected to the downtown core by Shinkansen Line Tōkaidō and historic axis of Tōkaidō , consisting of Nagoya and the conurbation Keihanshin (or “Kinki triangle”) of Kansai ( Osaka , Kobe and Kyoto ) and the third set, west , consisting of the coastal inland sea, a sort of annex industrial center.
Main article: European megalopolis .
The third is the megalopolis known European megalopolis , formed by the urban along 1500 km and population density (approx. 70 million) between Greater London in England , and the region of Milan , in Italy , through the Benelux and the Ruhr . This arc metropolitan center position in Europe is also called ” European backbone “- called” blue banana “by Roger Brunet , in the early 1990s, due to the form that appeared in a satellite image. In some approaches, sometimes associated with peripheral agglomerations Paris and Frankfurt . This “backbone” is the center of momentum in terms of economic policy and the European Union , and dominates the peripheral regions, less dynamic in terms of demographic and economic Europe.
However, the European backbone is not completely homogeneous and could be divided into subsets urban:
The south-east, middle and part of northern England , under the domination of Greater London .
The Rhine axis with the conurbations
border Franco – Belgian of Eurométropole Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai ,
Belgian of Brussels – Antwerp – Ghent ,
Netherlands the Randstad Holland ,
German of the Rhine-Ruhr , the Rhine-Main and Rhine-Neckar ,
border French , Swiss and German of the Trinational Eurodistrict Basel ,
Swiss North of Midland .
The Po Valley in north of Italy , around the urban centers of Milan and Turin .
In South Africa , the merger of the urban areas of Johannesburg , Pretoria and the area between the smaller towns of the Witwatersrand , Vereeniging and Sasolburg , in the province of Gauteng , seems to have created the first African megalopolis with no less than 8 million.
The megalopolis is a common theme in science fiction , generally allowing to express a vision of urban hell pushed to the limit. For example, William Gibson described in ” Neuromancer “, the Conurb stretching from Boston to Atlanta . Gender has also described the cities having finally covered their entire planet, like Trantor , inhabited by 40 billion people in the series Foundation of Isaac Asimov , or Coruscant in Star Wars .
Notes and references
↑ Jean Gottmann , 1960, America , Hachette, p. 176-177
↑ Jean Gottmann , 1960, America , Hachette, p. 175
( in ) Jean Gottmann , 1961, Megalopolis, The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States , The MIT Press
( en ) Collective (coordination Knafou R.), 1992, Megacities and giant cities. For Urban Ecology , Eastern Publishing, 207 p. ( ISBN 2-86955-131-2 )
Proceedings 2nd International Festival of Geography of Saint-Die-des-Vosges ,
( en ) Y. The Diascorn, 2006, The Japanese megalopolis , Ellipses, 143 p. ( ISBN 2-7298-2047-7 )
Megalopolitan world archipelago
List of megacities
On the other Wikimedia projects:
Megalopolis , on Wiktionary
For the European megalopolis
Article by R. Brunet on “lines of force of the European space”, from the Globe magazine, No. 66, 2nd qtr. 2002
R. Brunet addresses this géographisme of Blue Banana
For the global urban hierarchy
English site, “Globalization and World Cities”, directed by Saskia Sassen (specialist in “global city” or Global City ) and Peter Taylor
Site created by students at Sciences Po on definitions of urban online fast cash geography
Site Géoconfluence, Association of Geographers, ENS Lyon, well documented
Geopolis : research group, university of Paris-Diderot, France for the urban data in the worldThe end of Silla
Towards the end of the ix th century, the kingdom of Silla declined, he faces a period of civil war and peasant uprisings, to splits in small states which declared their independence. The major rebellions led by Gung Ye (궁예弓裔, who died in 918), Gi hwin (기휜), Yang Gil (양길) and Gyon Hwon (견훤).
In 918 , or Wanggeon Wang Kon , the son of a wealthy merchant Songak (currently Gaeseong ) and former official of Silla, proclaimed himself head of state said Goryeo , which marks the end of the period of Korea unified in Seoul National University the kingdom of Kansas City carpet cleaning Silla, and the beginning of an interim period, known as the Three Kingdoms Period Post (see article) , which lasted until 935 . Two other kingdoms are based: Hu-Goguryeo (후고 구려 or later Goguryeo , later renamed Taebong (태봉)) by Gung Ye and Hu-Baekje (후백제 or later Baekje ). The period ended with the defeat and the annexation of Baekje by Hu-Wang Kon, combined with Taebong in 935 .
Establishment of the dynasty
From 918 to 935 , Goryeo took control of the peninsula, and extends. The conquest north to the river will Chongcheon , and stops to face Khitan . Subsequently, the border is fortified in the manner of limes Roman, on the lower Amnokgang , and Amnokgang way to the sea is .
To consolidate his power, the fourth king Goryeo Gwangjong, enacts a series of laws, including the emancipation of slaves in 958 , and the creation of a competitive examination for civil servants (see Administrative Work ). He proclaimed himself Emperor. Gradually, this work by administrative Goryeo kings gradually succeed in disciplining local lords, goal reached in the eleventh king of the dynasty, Munjong (문종,文宗). Munjong and his successors assert the authority of the civil over the military.
Despite the administrative work done until about 1000 (competition, sinicization, assimilation of elites earlier), the power of the dynasty can not prevail chiropractic marketing completely. Local potentates keep some of their autonomy.
Weakening of central authority
The imperial wives, the eleventh (Munjong) in the seventeenth King (Injong), come from the house of Li Inju (인주 이씨,仁州李氏). At every wedding, the Li gain power over the kings, leading to the coup of Li Jagyeom in 1126 . Despite its failure, the power of the monarch TSE reached in the mind, and Koryo must undergo a civil war within the nobility.
In 1135 , Myo Chung proposes to relocate the capital to Seogyeong (current Pyongyang ). The proposal divides the nobility:
some support Myo Chung, believing in this movement and especially its meaning, the pursuit of conquest in Manchuria ;
others, according Busik Kim (author of the Samguk sagi ), prefer the status quo. Chung does not know myo convince the king, and revolted. It fails.
In 1170 , soldiers led by Jeong Jungbu (정중부,郑仲夫) and Li Uibang (이의방,李义方) took power. Injong King went into exile, and Myeongjong (명종,明宗) estcouronné in its place. Civil servants are sidelined in favor of the military. A long period of instability ensued, between the military coups at the top of the state and peasant revolts at the base.
From the beginning of the Mongol expansion, the Goryeo suffers from its raids. First it was the Khitan who were driven into the peninsula. The Jins (Chinese Empire) then require a tribute .
An alliance, however, is tied with the Mongols , thereby driving the Khitan of Korea. A tribute must then be introduced to the Mongols.
The Mongols invaded Goryeo in 1231 , and the king signed his surrender in 1232 : a general representing the Mongolian emperor moved to Gaeseong . King Choi Chungheon (최충헌,崔忠献) leaks on the island of Ganghwa the same year, urging everyone to armed resistance. A second invasion is triggered by the death of the Mongol general. In 1235 , after a third invasion, permanent garrisons are imposed. Campaigns such as cities are sacked. The king resists Ganghwado, but does not intervene.
In 1254 , 200,000 Koreans died during the fourth Mongol invasion. The Tripitaka is destroyed. The king meanwhile refuses to return to the continent as the Mongols are present, then yields in 1258 . Some military officials refuse to surrender, and form the Sambyeolcho rebellion , fighting in the Korea Strait islands between the southern peninsula and Japan . The court can not return to http://www.insuranceforcriticalillness.co.uk/ Gaegyong in 1270 , with harsh conditions:
North Korea is distributed in colonies;
Jeju-do becomes stud Mongolian;
Mongolian representative makes or breaks the law, according to the wishes of Beijing ;
ceremonial clothing and humiliation imposed.
Korea is the basis of invasion of Japan ( 1274 and 1281 ), who is saved by the kamikaze , the divine winds that flow the Mongol fleet.
Expulsion of the Mongols
The Mongol presence causes a significant decline of faith in Buddha , and Confucianism occupies the land released. It is with the King Gongmin (reigning from 1351 to 1374 ) as the beginning of the Mongol retreat begins. Korea, however, suffered the invasion of Red Turbans (Chinese rebel) which ravaged the country in 1360 . General Yi Seonggye Djourchet defeats Mongols and in 1364 , but the new Ming dynasty in China prevents resume Manchuria .
It attacks the pirates Japanese : they were conducting raids on the coasts since the xiii th century , but their looting had become so widespread in the xiv th century that coastal areas were completely abandoned. Yi Seonggye organizes hunting pirates and eradicate this danger, which earned him great popularity. The king, came under the influence of the monk-Ton Sin, was assassinated (1374) and the Mongolian faction takes power. It pays tribute to the Ming from 1384 , deciding to establish a command post in the Hamgyeong.
This causes the decision to invade Yodong in China , in 1388 . General Yi Seonggye is in command of the army (38,000 men). But it turned around at the border and took power in 1392 . He founded the Joseon Dynasty free ipad , and strengthens his power through agrarian reforms.
Goryeo instaura in 958 , on the Chinese model, a competitive examination for Public Service. Three events were held, including one (myeonggyeong kwa) was devoted to reading and interpretation of the classics. It was a considerable advance, which allowed to select the most qualified Seoul offical website to carry out administrative tasks. This is also the competition that pushed the wealthy to the study of classical Chinese, and thus the impregnation of our minds by philosophy Confucian . The contest was not abolished until 1895 .
The x th century also, a senior official, Choe Seung-ro ( 927 – 989 ) wrote a long memory for the king, all dealing with contemporary issues, and is a manual of good government Confucius, inspired by the principle governing coexistence of Buddhism and Confucianism:
” Buddhism is for self-cultivation, Confucianism in the management of the country, the culture itself is to the future life, running the country, it is the job of this. ”
Caste of officials created by the competition devoted himself completely to the state, which in return assured a strong upward mobility to these people of humble origin. She also helped to spread Confucian philosophy.
The fifth king, Gyeongjong (경종,景宗), initiated a program of consolidation cadastral the Jeonsigwa (전시 과,田柴科). The sixth king, Seongjong, (성종,成宗) hired officials for local management, the role previously held by warlords.
Religion and Arts
The Goryeo Dynasty, the Buddhist knows a climax: the state religion, strongly linked to power, he receives many donations of land for successive kings. Her clergy also exerts a strong influence. The entire Buddhist canon was carved on 80,000 wooden panels, designed to invoke the aid of the Buddha to repel the Mongols ( Tripitaka Koreana ), these panels are kept in the temple of Haeinsa (해인사). In the arts, particularly excelled in the Goryeo ceramics . The Koreans drew up the celadon , blue-green lacquer with inlays, finely inlaid . This pottery was exported all over the East, and the art form is typically the most famous Korean. Koreans also invented movable type in 1234 , for a book on the etiquette of the Court. A book of Buddhist sermons printed by this method in 1377 is preserved at the Bibliothèque nationale de Franc . It is the oldest book in printed characters in the world, including Korea wants restitution. It was also during this period that Gisaeng appeared. The official historiography of this period is presented in the Goryeo-sa , written in 1451 by Chong In-ji .